4) Y20100200 冊数 … However, the Marble head of a Ptolemaic queen deified Arsinoe II as Hera. [37], Despite the unification of Greek and Egyptian elements in the intermediate Ptolemaic period, the Ptolemaic Kingdom also featured prominent temple construction as a continuation of developments based on Egyptian art tradition from the Thirtieth Dynasty. They were partly spread as allotment-holders over the country, forming social groups, in the country towns and villages, side by side with the native population, partly gathered in the three Greek cities, the old Naucratis, founded before 600 BC (in the interval of Egyptian independence after the expulsion of the Assyrians and before the coming of the Persians), and the two new cities, Alexandria by the sea, and Ptolemais in Upper Egypt. The second Greek city founded after the conquest of Egypt was Ptolemais, 400 miles (640 km) up the Nile, where there was a native village called Psoï, in the nome called after the ancient Egyptian city of Thinis. A. The Ptolemies also relied on the military to assert and maintain their control over Egypt, often by virtue of their presence. A major Mediterranean port of Egypt, in ancient times and still today, Alexandria was founded in 331 BC by Alexander the Great. Francis. [citation needed]. The Ptolemaic Kingdom (; Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ Basileía) [4] was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty which started with Ptolemy I Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. From the very beginning the Ptolemaic army demonstrated considerable resourcefulness and adaptability. This custom made Ptolemaic politics confusingly incestuous, and the later Ptolemies were increasingly feeble. Together, they visited Dendara, where Cleopatra was being worshiped as pharaoh, an honor beyond Caesar's reach. Saqqara, the city's necropolis, was a leading center of worship of Apis bull, which had become integrated into the national mythos. It is, therefore, purely Egyptian in style. From the mid third century, Ptolemaic Egypt was the wealthiest and most powerful of Alexander's successor states, and the leading example of Hellenistic civilization. . With his death, Rome split between supporters of Mark Antony and Octavian. When Ptolemy I Soter made himself king of Egypt, he created a new god, Serapis, to garner support from both Greeks and Egyptians. But within a century, Greek influence had spread through the country and intermarriage had produced a large Greco-Egyptian educated class. Ancient Egypt - Ancient Egypt - Macedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt (332–30 bce): In the autumn of 332 bce Alexander the Great invaded Egypt with his mixed army of Macedonians and Greeks and found the Egyptians ready to throw off the oppressive control of the Persians. The cult of Serapis included the worship of the new Ptolemaic line of pharaohs; the newly established Hellenistic capital of Alexandria supplanted Memphis as the preeminent religious city. Through her offspring, the Ptolemaic line intermarried back into the Roman nobility for centuries. Decorations on the first pylon of the Temple of Isis at Philae emphasise the Ptolemaic claim to rule the whole of Nubia. Kriegk.))' A complex state bureaucracy was established to manage and extract Egypt's vast wealth for the benefit of the Ptolemies and the landed gentry. Under the wealthy Ptolemaic Dynasty, the city soon surpassed Athens as the cultural center of the Hellenic world. Alexander conciliated the Egyptians by the respect he showed for their religion, but he appointed Macedonians to virtually all the senior posts in the country, and founded a new Greek city, Alexandria, to be the new capital. He built a large structure of limestone, about 100 metres (330 ft) long and 18 metres (59 ft) wide, to fill up the broken entrance to the great Temenos; he strengthened the great block of chambers in the Temenos, and re-established them. Under the guidance of his teacher, Demetrius Phalereus (who was in turn a former pupil of Aristotle ), Ptolemy built the Museum and Library of Alexandria and invited scholars from all around the world to … Cippi during the Ptolemaic Period generally featured the child form of the Egyptian god Horus, Horpakhered. Military leadership and the figure of the king and queen were central for ensuring unity and morale among multiethnic troops; at the battle of Raphai, the presence of Ptolemy was reportedly critical in maintaining and boosting the fighting spirit of both Greek and Egyptians soldiers. Most distinctively is the color of the faience. Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art. When the coalition was renewed against Antigonus in 302 BC, Ptolemy joined it, but neither he nor his army were present when Antigonus was defeated and killed at Ipsus. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. The Zeno papyri show that it was the chief port of call on the inland voyage from Memphis to Alexandria, as well as a stopping-place on the land-route from Pelusium to the capital. Cleopatra's children by Antony were spared by Octavian and given to his sister (and Antony's Roman wife) Octavia Minor, to be raised in her household. Although Egypt was a prosperous kingdom, with the Ptolemies lavishing patronage through religious monuments and public works, the native population enjoyed few benefits; wealth and power remained overwhelmingly in the hands of Greeks. Solomon Grayzel "A History of the Jews" p. 56, Solomon Grayzel "A History of the Jews" pp. Fortunately, Ptolemy I had left Egypt strong and prosperous; three years of campaigning in the First Syrian War made the Ptolemies masters of the eastern Mediterranean, controlling the Aegean islands (the Nesiotic League) and the coastal districts of Cilicia, Pamphylia, Lycia and Caria. In 305 BC, Ptolemy took the title of King. He was said to have had every book unloaded in the Alexandria docks seized and copied, returning the copies to their owners and keeping the originals for the Library. During Alexandria's brief literary golden period, c. 280–240 BC, the Library subsidized three poets—Callimachus, Apollonius of Rhodes, and Theocritus—whose work now represents the best of Hellenistic literature. [42] Reflecting Greek preferences, the traditional table for offerings disappeared from reliefs during the Ptolemaic period, while male gods were no longer portrayed with tails, so as to make them more human-like in accordance with the Hellenistic tradition. It began when Greek colonists, encouraged by many Pharaohs, set up the trading post of Naucratis. Further outrage followed at the donations of Alexandria ceremony in autumn of 34 BC in which Tarsus, Cyrene, Crete, Cyprus, and Judaea were all to be given as client monarchies to Antony's children by Cleopatra. Philip seized several islands and places in Caria and Thrace, while the battle of Panium in 200 BC transferred Coele-Syria from Ptolemaic to Seleucid control. . In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. [69] Notwithstanding an early crushing defeat at the Battle of Salamis in 306 BC, the Ptolemaic navy became the dominant maritime force in the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean for the next several decades. These marriages sometimes produced children, and other times were only a ceremonial union to consolidate political power. Ptolemy marched triumphantly into the heart of the Seleucid realm, as far as Babylonia, while his fleets in the Aegean Sea made fresh conquests as far north as Thrace. 3 maps. [91] They also introduced crops such as durum wheat and intensified the production of goods such as wool. Alexandria would remain one of the leading cities of the Mediterranean well into the late Middle Ages. [71] During the subsequent Chremonidean War, the Ptolemaic navy succeeded in blockading Macedonia and containing its imperial ambitions to mainland Greece.[72]. Greek culture was so much bound up with the life of the city-state that any king who wanted to present himself to the world as a genuine champion of Hellenism had to do something in this direction, but the king of Egypt, ambitious to shine as a Hellene, would find Greek cities, with their republican tradition and aspirations to independence, inconvenient elements in a country that lent itself, as no other did, to bureaucratic centralization. [73] Egyptian naval forces took part in the decisive battle of Actium during the final war of the Roman Republic, but once again suffered a defeat that culminated with the end of Ptolemaic rule. That the city flourished in Ptolemaic times "we may see by the quantity of imported amphorae, of which the handles stamped at Rhodes and elsewhere are found so abundantly." This attracted recruits from across the eastern Mediterranean, who were sometimes referred to misthophoroi xenoi — literally "foreigners paid with a salary". Poets like Callimachus, Theocritus, Apollonius of Rhodes, Posidippus were provided with stipends and produced masterpieces of Hellenistic poetry, including panegyrics in honour of the Ptolemaic family. The Ptolemies also lavished attention on Hermopolis, the cult center of Thoth, building a Hellenistic-style temple in his honor. Knowing that she would be taken to Rome to be paraded in Octavian's triumph (and likely executed thereafter), Cleopatra and her handmaidens committed suicide on 12 August 30 BC. 129 votes, 18 comments. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository, Egypt - Phoenicia - Palestine (Kiepert, Atlas Antiquus - Map 3).jpg, 1123 of '(F. C. Schlosser's Weltgeschichte für das deutsche Volk. The Ptolemaic Kingdom was diverse and cosmopolitan. Ancient Egypt - Ancient Egypt - Government and conditions under the Ptolemies: The changes brought to Egypt by the Ptolemies were momentous; the land’s resources were harnessed with unparalleled efficiency, with the result that Egypt became the wealthiest of the Hellenistic kingdoms. Many rulers also promoted individual cults of personality, including celebrations at Egyptian temples. The Ptolemaic Kingdom (/ ˌ t ɒ l ɪ ˈ m eɪ.ɪ k /; Koinē Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, romanized: Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was an ancient Hellenistic state based in Egypt.It was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander the Great, and lasted until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. [26] The influence of Greek art was shown in an emphasis on the face that was not previously present in Egyptian art and incorporation of Greek elements into an Egyptian setting: individualistic hairstyles, the oval face, “round [and] deeply set” eyes, and the small, tucked mouth closer to the nose. University of Queensland, Australia. Julius Caesar left Rome for Alexandria in 48 BC in order to quell the looming civil war, as war in Egypt, which was one of Rome's greatest suppliers of grain and other expensive goods, would have had a detrimental effect on trade with Rome, especially on Rome's working-class citizens. [citation needed], The early Ptolemies did not disturb the religion or the customs of the Egyptians. The Ptolemaic Kingdom (/ˌtɒlɪˈmeɪ.ɪk/; Koinē Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, romanized: Ptolemaïkḕ basileía)[4] was an ancient Hellenistic state based in Egypt. [40] Temples remained very New Kingdom and Late Period Egyptian in style though resources were oftentimes provided by foreign powers. Land Forces,” in. Ruling for nearly three centuries, the Ptolemies were the longest and final Egyptian dynasty. [65] The Ptolemaic navy also protected the kingdom's lucrative maritime trade and engaged in antipiracy measures, including along the Nile. As Egypt came under foreign domination and decline, the Pharaohs depended on the Greeks as mercenaries and even advisors. In every respect they remained completely Greek, both in their language and traditions. (2019). Greek culture had a long but minor presence in Egypt long before Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria. Nevertheless, his ministers were able to make serious preparations to meet the attacks of Antiochus III the Great on Coele-Syria, and the great Egyptian victory of Raphia in 217 BC secured the kingdom. The following 79 files are in this category, out of 79 total. Now vanished, the lighthouse was reckoned as one of the Seven Wonders of the World for its unsurpassed height (perhaps 140 metres or 460 ft); it was a square, fenestrated tower, topped with a metal fire basket and a statue of Zeus the Savior. The navy operated throughout the eastern Mediterranean, Aegean Sea, and Levantine Sea, and along the Nile, patrolling as far as the Red Sea towards the Indian Ocean. Mark Antony's alliance with Cleopatra angered Rome even more. [47] The Ptolemaic military initially served a defensive purpose, primarily against competing diadochi claimants and rival Hellenistic states like the Seleucid Empire. This inbreeding was intended to stabilize the family; wealth a… The wealth of Egypt was owed in large part to the unrivalled fertility of the Nile, which served as the breadbasket of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. [citation needed], Ptolemy I, perhaps with advice from Demetrius of Phalerum, founded the Library of Alexandria,[23] a research centre located in the royal sector of the city. Alexandria remained the capital of the country, but Egypt itself became a Roman province. Following Alexander's death, control passed into the hands of the Lagid (Ptolemaic) Dynasty; they built Greek cities across their empire and gave land grants across Egypt to the veterans of their many military conflicts. Cleopatra was finally stripped of authority and title by Ptolemy XIII's advisors, who held considerable influence over the young king. During the reign of Ptolemies II and III, thousands of Macedonian veterans were rewarded with grants of farm lands, and Macedonians were planted in colonies and garrisons or settled themselves in villages throughout the country. In return, the priests undertook to erect a statue group in each of their temples, depicting the god of the temple presenting a sword of victory to Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe III. Like other Ptolemaic decrees, the decree was inscribed in hieroglyphs, Demotic, and Koine Greek. Ptolemaic Greek Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt. [27] Early portraits of the Ptolemies featured large and radiant eyes in association to the rulers’ divinity as well as general notions of abundance.[41]. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the. This book is the first to explore the impact of She reigned as queen "philopator" and pharaoh with various male co-regents from 51 to 30 BC when she died at the age of 39. Once he reached adulthood Epiphanes became a tyrant, before his early death in 180 BC. Various diadochi competed for naval supremacy over the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean,[67] and Ptolemy I founded the navy to help defend Egypt and consolidate his control against invading rivals. [83] Greeks soon became the dominant elite; native Egyptians, though always the majority, generally occupied lower posts in the Ptolemaic government. Ptolemaic Egypt was a culturally and intellectually lively place. His domestic policy differed from his father's in that he patronised the native Egyptian religion more liberally: he left larger traces among the Egyptian monuments. Roman Egypt became one of Rome's richest provinces and a center of Hellenistic culture, with Greek remaining the main language of government until the Muslim conquest in 641 AD. In 88 BC Ptolemy IX again returned to the throne, and retained it until his death in 80 BC. The continuation of the Egyptian art style evidences the Ptolemies' commitment to maintaining Egyptian customs. His growth and popularity reflected a deliberate policy by the Ptolemaic state, and was characteristic of the dynasty's use of Egyptian religion to legitimize their rule and strengthen their control. The multiethnic nature of the Ptolemaic army was an official organizational principle: soldiers were evidently trained and utilized based on their national origin; Cretans generally served as archers, Libyans as heavy infantry, and Thracians as cavalry. Ptolemy, son of Lagos took control of Egypt and governed the country until 305 BC, when he was crowned King. When Alexander the Great arrived, he established Alexandria on the site of the Persian fort of Rhakortis. Beginning with the Second Syrian War (260–253 BC), the navy suffered a series of defeats and declined in military importance, which coincided with the loss of Egypt's overseas possessions and the erosion of its maritime hegemony. When Alexander died, the Hellenistic empire died with him but separated into multiple nation states. The demise of the Ptolemies' power coincided with the growing dominance of the Roman Republic. [63] Some modern historians characterize Egypt during this period as a thalassocracy, owing to its innovation of "traditional styles of Mediterranean sea power", which allowed its rulers to "exert power and influence in unprecedented ways". Ptolemy III had introduced an important innovation in 238 BC by holding a synod of all the priests of Egypt at Canopus. Temples remained the focal point of social, economic, and cultural life; the first three reigns of the dynasty were characterized by rigorous temple building, including the completion of projects left over from the previous dynasty; many older or neglected structures were restored or enhanced. Few mutinies and revolts are recorded, and even rebellious troops would be placated with land grants and other incentives. Ptolemy IV continued this tradition by holding his own synod at Memphis in 217 BC, after the victory celebrations of the Fourth Syrian War. 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