“I shall begin with our ancestors: it is both just and proper that they should have the honour of the first mention on an occasion like the present. At such a time of high emotions and patriotism – Pericles has not one theme but several. In the funeral procession cypress coffins are borne in cars, one for each tribe; the bones of the deceased being placed in the coffin of their tribe. Perseverance in what men called honor was popular with none, it was so uncertain whether they would be spared to attain the object; but it was settled that present enjoyment, and all that contributed to it, was both honorable and useful…Fear of gods or law of man there was none to restrain them.”[14], So much for the Athenian society of Pericles in which “fear is our chief safeguard, teaching us to obey the magistrates and the laws…whether they are actually on the statute book, or belong to that code which, although unwritten, yet cannot be broken without acknowledged disgrace.”[15]. Pericles's father, Xanthippos, was … The Athenians, whom Pericles has just described as “ready to encounter every legitimate danger” and “equal to so many emergencies,” buckle in every way under the onset of a devastating illness. lang. Pericles' Funeral Oration, pertains to the overwhelming opposition of distinguished historians and philologists in the authentic substance of this incomparable funeral speech. Such is the Athens for which these men, in the assertion of their resolve not to lose her, nobly fought and died; and well may every one of their survivors be ready to suffer in her cause. American Civil War scholars Louis Warren and Garry Wills have addressed the parallels of Pericles' funeral oration to Abraham Lincoln's famous Gettysburg Address. “Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighbouring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. What if Eisenhower Had Driven On to Berlin? I feel like the metaphors and similes give the speech that sort of feel. Homer’s Iliad, (around 700BC), commen… Far from eulogizing Pericles in the Funeral Oration, Pericles is subtly depicted as a tyrant, a demagogue, a despot who became a despot by his exploitation of the erotic character of humans—an erotic character which the Athenians unleashed in the Persian Wars and then unleashed over the Mediterranean in a vain and tyrannical bid for an empire. The Menexenus of P For heroes have the whole earth for their tomb; and in lands far from their own, where the column with its epitaph declares it, there is enshrined in every breast a record unwritten with no tablet to preserve it, except that of the heart. Like Lincoln’s address, Pericles’ oration is set against the poignant backdrop of a nation remembering its war dead. Meanwhile these were the first that had fallen, and Pericles, son of Xanthippus, was chosen to pronounce their eulogium. Pericles’ Funeral Oration In his oration, Pericles sheds new light on traditional Greek virtues by examining not only the accomplishments of the Athenian empire, but the particular qualities and institutions that have facilitated […] ), Thucydides and the Modern World (Cambridge, 2012) No, holding that vengeance upon their enemies was more to be desired than any personal blessings, and reckoning this to be the most glorious of hazards, they joyfully determined to accept the risk, to make sure of their vengeance, and to let their wishes wait; and while committing to hope the uncertainty of final success, in the business before them they thought fit to act boldly and trust in themselves. He celebrates how the Athenians “cultivate refinement without extravagance and knowledge without effeminacy,” in an attempt to convey how Athenians can possess power and wealth without losing their basically good moral character. war. [22] [23] [24] Lincoln's speech, like Pericles', begins with an acknowledgment of revered predecessors: "Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth upon this continent..."; [5] He spent the rest of his life observing the Peloponnesian War closely and writing his ambitious history of the events, which he confidently declared would be a “possession for all time.”[6] As Victor Davis Hanson notes in his introduction to The Landmark Thucydides, Thucydides “clearly outlined his own methods of historical inquiry, offering a self-conscious candor rare in ancient narrative writing.”[7] The broad range of data and modes of research that Thucydides used to support the facts given in his history lend themselves to the conclusion that Thucydides truly sought to be as objective as possible. [8] For these reasons, it is easy to view the account of Pericles’ Funeral Oration as glorifying its giver and celebrating the democracy he sought to perpetuate. The reader who would interpret the Funeral Oration as a resounding war cry for the excellence of democracy need only read Thucydides’ next few chapters to realize the futility of such an attempt. And that this is no mere boast thrown out for the occasion, but plain matter of fact, the power of the state acquired by these habits proves. I believe the deeper meaning underlying Thucydides’ account of the funeral oration is better found by examining the larger context of this section of his history than by parsing out individual phrases and words from the non-verbatim speech. MOST POPULAR ESSAYS AND PAPERS at #1 ESSAYS COLLECTION ONLINE. Study 60 Final Review flashcards from Meghan M. on StudyBlue. In saying that Athens does not even need Homer to sing its praises, Pericles makes a bold statement about the value and fame of his city-state. On the other hand, if I must say anything on the subject of female excellence to those of you who will now be in widowhood, it will be all comprised in this brief exhortation. Pericles, who himself died in the Plague, and his rhetorical descendant Lincoln, shot by a disgruntled Virginian rebel, perished in the midst of ignoble sensibilities contrary to those they had extolled in their respective addresses. He introduces repetition twice in the speech. The epainesis in Pericles’ oration continues with a remark on arete, that is, the excellence of the dead in battle: But the valor of these men and their peers gave the city her beauty…The death of these, in my judgment, revealed the courage of some at their first encounter, or conformed the others’ established record (Pericles, 21). Quotes Pericles Funeral Oration. For myself, I should have thought that the worth which had displayed itself in deeds would be sufficiently rewarded by honours also shown by deeds; such as you now see in this funeral prepared at the people’s cost. Like other wartime wisdom, it contains spiritual lessons for those of us on the spritual path, which I want to record. His famous “Gettysburg Address” has been analyzed and memorized by schoolchildren for generations. Almost immediately following Pericles’ Funeral Oration, delivered in the winter of 431, the plague breaks out. Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis: Athenian… This piece is a funeral oratory, a speech written to honor fallen Athenian heroes at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War. Through a number of comparisons, I shall set Thucydides’ passage in the wider con-temporary context, arguing that Pericles’ rhetoric presented his audience with a refined metaphor which produced a striking and memorable effect. Again, in our enterprises we present the singular spectacle of daring and deliberation, each carried to its highest point, and both united in the same persons; although usually decision is the fruit of ignorance, hesitation of reflection. For there is justice in the claim that steadfastness in his country’s battles should be as a cloak to cover a man’s other imperfections; since the good action has blotted out the bad, and his merit as a citizen more than outweighed his demerits as an individual. Pericles’ Funeral Oration. “Indeed if I have dwelt at some length upon the character of our country, it has been to show that our stake in the struggle is not the same as theirs who have no such blessings to lose, and also that the panegyric of the men over whom I am now speaking might be by definite proofs established. The official funeral oration for the Athenian soldiers who died at one of the opening battles of the Peloponnesian War by the leader of democratic Athens, Pericles. A 2013 study assessed the metaphors used by families of African American children with asthma in an urban setting. But what was the road by which we reached our position, what the form of government under which our greatness grew, what the national habits out of which it sprang; these are questions which I may try to solve before I proceed to my panegyric upon these men; since I think this to be a subject upon which on the present occasion a speaker may properly dwell, and to which the whole assemblage, whether citizens or foreigners, may listen with advantage. That part of our history which tells of the military achievements which gave us our several possessions, or of the ready valour with which either we or our fathers stemmed the tide of Hellenic or foreign aggression, is a theme too familiar to my hearers for me to dilate on, and I shall therefore pass it by. Log in to see the full document and commentary. That panegyric is now in a great measure complete; for the Athens that I have celebrated is only what the heroism of these and their like have made her, men whose fame, unlike that of most Hellenes, will be found to be only commensurate with their deserts. Otherwise, how could Pericles' metaphor have been so often elaborated and even attributed to later and lesser Robin Lane Fox lecutres on the relevance to modern societies of the great Athenian statesman Pericles, with particular reference to his funeral oration. Today, I read The Funeral Oration of Pericles. Yet, of course, the doer of the favour is the firmer friend of the two, in order by continued kindness to keep the recipient in his debt; while the debtor feels less keenly from the very consciousness that the return he makes will be a payment, not a free gift. in the Periclean Funeral Oration S. SARA MONOSON Northwestern University AT A KEY POINT IN THE FUNERAL oration Thucydides has Pericles urge his fellow citizens "to gaze, day after day, upon the power of the city and become her lovers (erastai)" (II.43.1).1 This article investigates the implications and resonances of Pericles' use of this metaphor. Against this fear is our chief safeguard, teaching us to obey the magistrates and the laws, particularly such as regard the protection of the injured, whether they are actually on the statute book, or belong to that code which, although unwritten, yet cannot be broken without acknowledged disgrace. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. We celebrate games and sacrifices all the year round, and the elegance of our private establishments forms a daily source of pleasure and helps to banish the spleen; while the magnitude of our city draws the produce of the world into our harbour, so that to the Athenian the fruits of other countries are as familiar a luxury as those of his own. by the leader of Athens. “We may encounter many defeats but we must not be defeated”, the words with such a strong meaning can be used perfectly to inspire the audience. And surely, to a man of spirit, the degradation of cowardice must be immeasurably more grievous than the unfelt death which strikes him in the midst of his strength and patriotism! Did this speech inspire others? used in both BY and IHAD? A while after Sparta made peace treaties to stop the war, Athens accepted, as the had new leaders. In the same winter the Athenians gave a funeral at the public cost to those who had first fallen in this war. Pericles’ metaphor in the funeral oration, that the Athenians should become erastai of the city, would have been original and striking to his audience, as the connotations of eros in politics had normally been divisive and pejorative. THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION – FRANCE. 404 BCE) in his History of the Peloponnesian War. This is just a random paper I wrote for an undergraduate history class, is not peer-reviewed, and should not be cited as a credible academic source. Here is an extract from Pericles Funeral Oration. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. A “golden age of eloquence” was ushered in by the statesman, general, and master orator Pericles. Yet it is Demosthenes who is remembered as the greatest orator of Greece and perhaps all time. It might have inspired Abraham Lincoln's “[Our] administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy,” Thucydides’ Pericles declares. Japanese 6th Fleet Headquarters at Kwajalein had come up with a further innovative use for submarines that had already been employed in the attack on Pearl Harbor. Ideas are always more [important] than battles.”[1] In Book Two of his History of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides writes of an Athenian speech – delivered in 431 B.C.E. Any citizen or stranger who pleases, joins in the procession: and the female relatives are there to wail at the burial. Change ). Especially notable to this analysis is his obvious admiration of Pericles as the leader of the Athenian democracy. A deadly disease spread in Athens, that led the leader Pericles to his death, as well as a quarter of the people in the country, yet they continued fighting vigilantly against the Spartans. Study 66 Final Exam flashcards from Amanda S. on StudyBlue. Building on the claim that Thucydides associates each of these approaches to mourning with a specific Pericles, the essay traces the genealogical connection between Pericles' Funeral Oration and Lincoln's Address before asking which Pericles was present—and thus, which kind of mourning was displayed—at Gettysburg and at Ground Zero. And like the President, Pericles used the occasion to extol the virtues of democracy – his nation’s virtuous and celebrated form of government.[2]. But the palm of courage will surely be adjudged most justly to those, who best know the difference between hardship and pleasure and yet are never tempted to shrink from danger. NOTE (3/11/2019): I’ve noticed that this post is getting a lot of traffic for some reason. On November 19, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln stepped to the podium at Gettysburg cemetery to deliver a speech. Was less important than the speech that sort of feel Pericles says Athenians!... 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